Nuclear medicine tests in GI Diseases

What nuclear medicine tests are most helpful in gastrointestinal (GI) medicine? 

Nuclear medicine procedures have been used in the evaluation of nearly every GI problem. Current improvements in and widespread use of endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, and diagnostic radiologic imaging techniques (CT, MRI, US) have limited the use of nuclear medicine to specific clinical problems.

Uses of Nuclear Medicine Procedures in Gastrointestinal Diseases

Test or StudyUseful in Diagnosis/Evaluation
Cholescintigraphy (hepatobiliary imaging)Acute cholecystitis
Gallbladder dyskinesis
Common duct obstruction
Biliary atresia
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
Hepatic mass
Biliary leak
Choleangiointestinal anastomosis patency
Gastric emptyingQuantification of gastric motility
Esophageal motility/transitQuantification of esophageal transit
Evaluation/detection of reflux
Detection of pulmonary aspiration
14 C-urea breath testIdentification of Helicobacter pylori infection
Liver/spleen scanHepatic mass lesions
Accessory spleen/splenosis
Heat-damaged RBC scanAccessory spleen/splenosis
67 Gallium scanStaging of abdominal malignancies
Abdominal abscess
111 In-pentetreotideNeuroendocrine tumor staging/recurrence
111 In WBC scanEvaluation of abdominal infection/abscess
Evaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease
99m Tc-HMPAO WBC scanEvaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease
99m Tc-RBC scanGI bleeding localization
Hepatic hemangiomas
Pertechnetate (NaTcO4) scanningMeckel diverticulum
99m Tc-sulfur colloid dynamic imagingGI bleeding localization
Hepatic arterial perfusion with 99m Tc MAAHepatic intraarterial catheter perfusion
90 Y microspheresTreatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma
Treatment of hepatic metastatic lesions
18 F-FDG PET and PET/CTEvaluation of various malignancies
Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

14 C, Carbon-14; CT, computed tomography; 18 F-FDG, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; GI, gastrointestinal; HMPAO, hexamethyl-propyleneamine-oxime; 111 In, indium-111; MAA, macroaggregated albumin; PET, positron emission tomography; RBC , red blood cell; 99m Tc , technetium-99m; WBC , white blood cell; 90 ,


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