How do the Major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules differ in function

How do the Major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules differ in function?

They differ in their cellular distribution, the antigenic peptide fragments they present, and the type of T cell that recognizes and responds to the complex they present.

Function of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and II Molecules

MHC Class IMHC Class II
Cellular distributionAll nucleated cells and plateletsAntigen-presenting cells:• B cells• Monocytes/macrophages• Dendritic cells• Thymic epithelial cellsSome activated T cells
Some cells in which MHC Class II is induced, particularly during chronic inflammation:• Endothelial cells• Synovial cells
Antigen size8–13 amino acids in length13–25 amino acids in length
Antigen typeAntigen peptides found inside the cell (self-peptides, intracellular pathogens, or tumor antigens)Phagocytosed or receptor-mediated endocytosed antigen taken into the lysosome (extracellular pathogens)
T-cell recognitionCD8+ T cellsCD4+ T cells
T-cell responseCell-mediated cytotoxicity of the cell presenting the antigen on MHC class IT cell coordinated phagocytic and/or antibody response to eradicate the presented antigen
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