Granulomatous lung diseases that cause nodular interstitial disease
Sarcoidosis is the most common granulomatous interstitial lung disease to cause a micronodular pattern. This idiopathic disorder typically manifests in middle-aged individuals, especially African Americans. Miliary infections also cause a small nodular pattern and are typified by miliary tuberculosis but also include miliary spread of histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis. These infections typically affect immunocompromised individuals, such as patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, patients who have undergone organ transplantation, or patients with a history of long-term corticosteroid use. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis or hypersensitivity pneumonitis not only causes a granulomatous interstitial fibrosis, but may also produce an interstitial nodular pattern of lung disease.