Creatine monophosphate

What is Creatine monophosphate

Creatine monophosphate is a dietary supplement similar to the natural compound creatine phosphate, which is an essential component of the energy-building system in muscle cells.

Phosphocreatine is a nitrogen-containing compound found naturally in meats and fish. Creatine is also synthesized endogenously by the kidney, liver, and pancreas from arginine, glycine, and methionine. Normal dietary needs of creatine are suggested to be approximately 2 g/day to replace catabolized creatine.

Many sports nutrition experts believe that the majority of world-class athletes use creatine.

It is also widely used at the collegiate level. Quality scientific studies have been conducted to evaluate the exercise response to creatine loading in various forms of sport (e.g., jump squats, sprinting, weight lifting), and in many of these studies, creatine exhibited ergogenic properties.

The most beneficial effects of creatine appear to be seen in events requiring extremely high-intensity effort for very brief periods (e.g., less than 60 seconds). High intensity exercise increases the demands on the anaerobic energy system and creatine loading helps supplement this.

Overall, creatine supplementation along with resistance exercise may enhance exercise performance and increase lean body mass.

Creatine supplementation is not considered doping and is not banned by NCAA or USOC.

Creatine has been available over-the-counter (OTC) as a dietary supplement since 1993; it is currently not classified as a drug by the FDA.

However, in March 2002, the FDA granted orphan drug status to The Avicena Group for creatine in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease).

The Avicena Group ( has been studying creatine (Neotine®) for use in ALS patients. Safety and efficacy has been demonstrated in these patients.

Creatine appears to slow progression of ALS and improve patients’ quality of life. Neotine® is currently in Phase III trials for this indication.

A new formulation of creatine, PD-02, has been developed by Avicena for evaluation in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

A large scale Phase III trial is currently underway through the NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to assess the efficacy of creatine in slowing progression of the disease.

A previously completed Phase II futility clinical trial showed potential benefit of the drug.


  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • ergogenesis
  • Parkinson’s disease

To achieve ergogenesis† by enhancing anaerobic metabolism during strenuous, short-term exercise

NOTE: The concept of a ‘loading dose’ followed by a ‘maintenance dose’ is generally employed in dosing creatine.

Side Effects

  1. anxiety
  2. atrial fibrillation
  3. constipation
  4. dehydration
  5. depression
  6. diarrhea
  7. dizziness
  8. dyspnea
  9. fatigue
  10. fluid retention
  11. headache
  12. hypercholesterolemia
  13. muscle cramps
  14. myopathy
  15. nausea
  16. rash
  17. seizures
  18. tremor
  19. vomiting
  20. weight gain
  21. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary


  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • pregnancy
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment


No information is available regarding drug interactions associated with Creatine 


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