FODMAPs are fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. They include fructose, lactose, fructans, galactans, and sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, xylitol, and ismalt. Fructose and lactose are present in apples, pears, watermelon, honey, fruit juices, dried fruits, milk, and dairy products. Polyols are used as a sugar replacement in low-calorie food products. Galactans and fructans are present in common dietary constituents, such as wheat, rye, garlic, onions, legumes, cabbage, artichokes, leeks, asparagus, lentils, inulin, soy, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli. Recent studies suggest that some patients with IBS have improvement in symptoms on a low FODMAP diet, although further studies are needed to determine which patients are most likely to improve.